Counterparty credit risk (CVA) is the risk that the counterparty to a financial contract will default prior to the expiration of the contract and will not make all the payments required by the contract. Obviously exchange-traded derivatives are not subject to counterparty risk as the respective exchange guarantees the settlement of cash flows as per the derivative contract. CVA is a measure that adjusts the risk-free value of an instrument to incorporate counterparty credit risk. CVA can be positive or negative depending on which of the two counterparties is most likely to default and the relative balances due or receivable to each other.
There were some concerns expressed in certain quarters as to whether the Debit Value Adjustment (DVA) should be considered in determining the fair value. Now based on the recent exposure draft announced jointly by IASB and FASB on 28th January 2011 on Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities it is amply clear that the DVA also should be recognized along with CVA.