First Ind AS financial statements are the first and only financial statements in which the entity adopts Ind ASs as per the Ind ASs notified in the Companies Act 2013 and makes an explicit and unreserved statement in those financial statements of compliance with Ind ASs.
It should be noted that the entire set of standards notified by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs should be complied with by the entity without any exception for any standard.
Opening Ind AS balance sheet:
An entity should prepare opening Ind AS balance sheet at the date of transition to Ind AS. This becomes the starting point for its accounting as per the Ind ASs.
Roadmap – Phase I
1st April 2015 or thereafter: Voluntary Basis for all companies
1st April 2016: Mandatory Basis
Companies listed on Stock Exchange having net worth equal to or more than Rs.500 Crore
Unlisted Companies having net worth equal to more than Rs.500 Crore
Parent, Subsidiary, Associate and Joint Venture of above
Roadmap – Phase II
Phase II 1st April 2017 (Mandatory Basis)
1st April 2017 (Mandatory Basis)
Parent, Subsidiary, Associate and JV of above
Unlisted Companies having net worth equal to or more than Rs.250 Crore up to Rs.500 Crore
All Listed Companies not covered in Phase I
Other companies will continue to follow existing ASRoadmap for banks, NBFCs and insurance companies still to be decided
Banks, Insurance Companies, MBFC’s, RRB’s not yet covered in Phase I and Phase II. Roadmap is notified subsequently
Requirements of an entity applying Ind AS for the first time
The end of entity A’s first Ind AS reporting period is 31 March 2017 (For companies covered under Phase 1).
Entity A decides to present comparative information in those financial statements for one year only.
Its date of transition to Ind ASs is the beginning of business on 1 April 2015 (or, equivalently, close of business on 31 March 2015).
Entity A presented financial statements in accordance with its AS (previous GAAP) annually to 31 March each March 2016.year up to, and including, 31
Entity A is required to apply the Ind ASs effective for periods ending on 31 March 2017 in preparing & presenting:
1. Its opening Ind AS balance sheet at 1 April 2015.
2. Balance sheet for 31 March 2017 (comparative for YE 31 March 2016).
3. Statement of profit and loss.
4. Statement of changes in equity.
5. Statement of cash flows for the year to 31 March 2017 (comparative for YE 31 March 2016).
6. Disclosures (including comparative information for YE 31 March 2016).
First Ind AS financial statements
An entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall include at least
1. Three Balance Sheets
2. Two Statements of profit and loss
3. Two Statements of cash flows and
4. Two Statements of changes in equity and
5. Related notes
6. Includes comparative information for all statements presented
Non Ind AS info and historical summaries
Historical summaries are sometimes presented for prior periods before the first period for which they present full comparative information in accordance with Ind ASs.
Such summaries need not comply with the recognition and measurement requirements of Ind ASs.
Non-Ind AS comparative information
Some entities present comparative information in accordance with previous GAAP as well as the comparative information required by Ind AS 1.
In any financial statements containing historical summaries or comparative info as per previous GAAP, an entity shall:
label the previous GAAP information prominently as not being prepared as per Ind ASs and
disclose the nature of the main adjustments that would make it comply with Ind ASs.
An entity need not quantify those adjustments.
Explanation & reconciliations
An entity shall explain how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind ASs affected its reported Balance sheet, financial performance and cash flows.
An entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall include:
a) reconciliations of its equity as per previous GAAP to its equity as per Ind ASs for both of the following dates:
i. the date of transition to Ind ASs.
ii. the end of the latest period presented in the entity’s most recent annual financial statements in accordance with previous GAAP.
A reconciliation to its total comprehensive income as per Ind ASs for the latest period in the entity’s most recent annual financial statements.
The starting point for that reconciliation shall be total comprehensive income as per previous GAAP for the same period or, if an entity did not report such a total, profit or loss under previous GAAP.
The reconciliations shall give sufficient detail about material adjustments to the Balance Sheet and Statement of profit and loss.
If an entity presented a Statement of cash flows under its previous GAAP, it shall also explain the material adjustments to the Statement of cash flows.
If an entity becomes aware of errors made under previous GAAP, it shall distinguish the correction of those errors from changes in accounting policies.
Training on financial instruments and accounting standards for financial instruments are important for all officers of the bank. As an endeavour to enable the banks in India to adopt the complex Indian Accounting Standards, especially accounting standards for financial instruments, we are happy to announce training program for the officers of the banks. The training is done as a workshop model with extensive hands on problems and solutions from real life scenarios. The interactive training program assumes no prior knowledge of accounting for the participants. As the entire subject may be relatively new to several participants, training is imparted from the basics. Training on the new set of standards is imperative, as this will enable the officers to understand the impact of convergence to Ind AS. Also, it will enable them to evaluate Ind AS based financial statements of their customers which will effectively improve the process of credit appraisal before granting such facilities to them. Needless to say that this knowledge will be useful in their responsibility of monitoring the financial performance of their customers on a periodical basis.
Mandatory application of Ind AS
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs on 18th January 2016 announced the road map for implementation of Ind AS for scheduled commercial banks, insurance companies and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs). They are required to prepare the Ind AS based financial statements beginning from 1st April 2018 onwards. It should be noted that Banks are prohibited from adopting Ind AS voluntarily from an earlier date other than the dates mentioned above. Subsequently, in a notification issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 11th February, 2016, Banks are required to assess the impact of implementing Ind AS and are required to submit quarterly progress reports to their respective boards. Banks are also required to be in preparedness to submit proforma Ind AS financial statements to the RBI from the half year ended September 30, 2016.
As per the said notification, banks are also required to disclose in their annual reports the strategy for implementing Ind AS and the progress made in such implementation from the financial year 2016-17 until the implementation process is completed.
Pursuant to the above mentioned regulatory requirements, banks are mandatorily required to comply with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for financial statements beginning from 1st April 2018 onwards with comparatives for the periods ending 31st March 2018 or thereafter. Ind AS would be applicable to both standalone financial statements and consolidated financial statements.
Consequences of introducing Ind AS
The requirement by the RBI ensuring Ind AS compliance by banks, insurance companies and NBFCs casts enormous amounts of responsibility on their part. While the RBI recommendation is a welcome development in the backdrop of the global perspective, it requires significant learning at various levels for the officers, managers and other top officials of every bank, so that they understand the importance of the new regulatory requirements thrust on them.
Financial instruments as per Ind AS
Financial instruments which probably are the most complex topic in the entire literature of accounting standards are one of the key areas from the perspective of a bank. Most line items in a balance sheet of a bank are invariably financial instruments and hence it is extremely important to understand the requirements of financial instruments accounting standards. Banks may not have the recourse to any precedence as the financial instruments standard viz. IFRS 9 is applicable for accounting periods beginning on or after 1st January 2018 onwards globally wherever IFRS is adopted. It is pertinent to note that IFRS 9 underwent a major revision in several of the key conceptual areas viz., recognition, classification, derecognition and impairment amongst other concepts. Hedge accounting underwent a major overhaul which is now part of the new IFRS 9 that is adopted in India and converged as Ind AS 109.
The training program would be customised based on the bank’s requirements.
The suggested program is for a three day course and a model session plan is given below which can be modified depending upon your specific requirements.
We have expert trainers who have hands on experience for more than 30 years in handling accounting standards. Depending upon the Bank’s requirement additional topics can be covered by respective trainers who have specialised knowledge on the subject selected.
Model session plan
Three day training course on Financial Instruments as per Ind AS requirements
10 am to 1 pm
Basic concepts of derivative instruments – What are derivatives and why we need them – Meaning of Forward, Futures and options – Pricing futures – Hedging, speculation & gambling – Option basics: ITM, ATM, OTM, Exercise, Lapse
2 pm to 5 pm
Advanced concepts on derivative instruments – Greeks in options pricing – Black-Scholes model / Binomial model – Put-call parity
Features of equity and equity derivatives – Exercise with practical problems Features of Interest Rate Derivatives – Interest Rate Swaps – Interest Rate CAPs / Floors – Interest Rate Collars / Reverse Collars – Cross Currency Swaps Fixed Income Securities FX Derivatives Credit Default Swaps Total Return Swaps
10 am to 1 pm
Accounting Standard Ind AS 32 – Financial asset and financial liabilities – Compound instruments – Liability Vs. Equity
2 pm to 5 pm
Accounting Standard Ind AS 109 – Recognition, measurement, subsequent measurement – Amortized cost – Classification, reclassification & derecognition – Impairment – Embedded derivatives Ind AS 107 Disclosures – Live examples from published accounts Report of the working group on implementation of Ind AS by Banks – Discussion of the report and practical implications thereof
10 am to 11.15 pm
Accounting for financial instruments – Interest rate derivatives – Fixed income securities Effect of changes in foreign exchange rates Ind AS 21 – Impact on financial instruments / hedge accounting
11.30 am to 1 pm
Hedge Accounting – Fair Value Hedge – Cash Flow Hedge
2 pm to 5 pm
Hedge Accounting – Case studies on Hedge Accounting Financial instruments nuances in First time adoption
Let us see the recognition and measurement of foreign currency transactions in the books of accounts.
First we need to understand what is meant by a foreign currency transaction.
Foreign currency transaction is a transaction in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity.
A foreign currency transaction is the one that is denominated in foreign currency that requires settlement in such foreign currency.
Let us look at the requirements for recognising a foreign currency transaction initially.
First, the foreign currency transaction is entered in separate books of accounts.
Then, the same is revalued by applying the spot rate to get the value in the functional currency of the entity.
In certain situations, average exchange rate may also be allowed, provided certain conditions are fulfilled.
Let us look at the requirements for subsequent measurement of such foreign currency transactions. Foreign currency transaction should be translated into functional currency.
For translating into functional currency, the rate at which the account balances should be converted into foreign currency is determined based on whether the item is a monetary item or a non-monetary item.
Monetary items are translated to the functional currency using the closing rate as on the reporting date.
For non-monetary items, the exchange rate to be used will depend upon the basis of measurement of such item.
If the basis is historical cost, then the account balance should be translated at the rate as on the date of transaction. However, if the basis of measurement is fair value, then the account balance should be translated into the functional currency at the rate as on the date on which the fair value is determined.